Guest blog written by antibodies-online.com (last updated June 4, 2020)
The first occurrence of human infections of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was recognized in Wuhan, China. Due to its fast spreading and life-threatening character it is affecting all of us.
Thus, infection prevention and control has become critical. This outbreak is officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded member of the Betacoronavirus Genus that also includes SARS CoV (Sequence Similarity: 70%), MERS CoV (Sequence Similarity: 40%) and hCoV-OC43hCoV.
For detecting the Coronavirus as well as for developing vaccines against it the virus’ specific proteins are promising targets for scientists. Here we will describe some of the most important Coronavirus proteins:
SARS-CoV Spike Protein
The coronavirus spike contains three segments: a large ectodomain, a single-pass transmembrane anchor and a short intracellular tail. The ectodomain consists of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. During virus entry, S1 binds to a receptor on the host cell surface for viral attachment, and S2 fuses the host and viral membranes, allowing viral genomes to enter host cells.
SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein
Of all the coronaviral structural proteins, the N protein is the most abundant throughout infection, both in mRNA and protein levels. Compared to the mRNA levels of other structural genes, the mRNA of the N protein is expressed three to ten times higher at 12-hour post-infection.
SARS-CoV Envelope Protein
The Envelope (E) protein is the smallest of the major structural proteins, but also the most enigmatic. During the replication cycle, E is abundantly expressed inside the infected cell, but only a small portion is incorporated into the virion envelope. The majority of the protein is localized at the site of intracellular trafficking.
SARS-CoV Membrane Protein
The coronavirus membrane (M) protein is the key player in virion assembly. One of its functions is to mediate the incorporation of the spikes into the viral envelope. When expressed alone, it accumulates in the Golgi complex in homomultimeric complexes. However, in combination with the E protein, virus-like particles (VLPs) similar to authentic virions in size and shape are assembled, demonstrating that the M and E proteins are the minimal requirements for envelope formation.
Although in some areas scientists can return to their labs, the pandemic remains, and there is still a high need for research on this topic. During the last weeks and months, antibodies-online has gathered a great amount of products that are crucial for understanding the virus and finding a cure.
Click on this new link to find our updated portfolio of antibodies, proteins and ELISA kits that will help you understand and fight COVID-19: https://www.antibodies-online.com/areas/infectious-disease/covid-19/
All of these products are also available in the Antibody & Protein Product Hub on the Scientist.com marketplace.
- WHO 01/12/2020, 02/11/2020 www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 , www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on-11-february-2020.
- Gorbalenya, Alexander E. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group” 11 February 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.937862.
- Roujian Lu, Xiang Zhao, Juan Li, Peihua Niu, Bo Yang, Honglong Wu et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. January 30, 2020. www.thelancet.com/journals/.
- Wu,F., Zhao,S., Yu,B. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. January 05, 2020.PubMed32015508, Sequence
- Jia HP, Look DC, Shi L, Hickey M, Pewe L, Netland J, Farzan M, Wohlford-Lenane C, Perlman S, McCray PB Jr. ACE2 receptor expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection depend on differentiation of human airway epithelia. J Virol. 2005 Dec;79(23):14614-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.23.14614-14621.2005. PMID: 16282461; PMCID: PMC1287568.
- Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Guangdi Li, Erik De Clercq. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 19, 149-150 (2020). doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0
- Li F. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Coronavirus Spike Proteins. Annu Rev Virol. 2016 Sep 29;3(1):237-261. doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042301. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PMID: 27578435; PMCID: PMC5457962.
- Li S, Lin L, Wang H, Yin J, Ren Y, Zhao Z, Wen J, Zhou C, Zhang X, Li X, Wang J, Zhou Z, Liu J, Shao J, Lei T, Fang J, Xu N, Liu S. The epitope study on the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2003 Aug;1(3):198-206. doi: 10.1016/s1672-0229(03)01025-8. PMID: 15629032; PMCID: PMC5172353.
- Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J. 2019 May 27;16(1):69. doi: 10.1186/s12985-019-1182-0. PMID: 31133031; PMCID: PMC6537279.
- de Haan CA, Smeets M, Vernooij F, Vennema H, Rottier PJ. Mapping of the coronavirus membrane protein domains involved in interaction with the spike protein. J Virol. 1999 Sep;73(9):7441-52. PMID: 10438834; PMCID: PMC104271.
Founded in 2007, Scientist.com is the world’s leading scientific services marketplace. It saves time and money and provides access to innovation while maintaining compliance with an organization’s procurement policies. Scientist.com operates private marketplaces for most of the world’s major pharmaceutical companies and the US NIH.